Download Marshall-Rosenberg – Comunicarea (Marshall Rosenberg) CELEBRATING MARSHALL. Nonviolent Communication is an approach to nonviolent living developed by Marshall Rosenberg beginning in the s. It is based on the idea that all human.
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Nonviolent Communication abbreviated NVC fosenberg, also called Compassionate Communication or Collaborative Communication is an approach to nonviolent living developed by Marshall Rosenberg beginning in the s.
Le parole sono finestre (oppure muri). Introduzione alla comunicazione nonviolenta
NVC theory supposes all human behavior stems from attempts to meet universal human needs and that these needs are never in conflict. Rather, conflict arises when strategies for meeting needs clash. NVC proposes that people identify shared needs, revealed by the thoughts marsjall feelings that surround these needs, and collaborate to develop strategies that meet them.
This creates both harmony and learning for future cooperation. NVC supports change on three interconnected levels: As such it is marshaol present in the areas of personal development, relationships, and social change. NVC is ostensibly taught as a process of interpersonal communication designed to improve compassionate connection to others.
However, due to its far-reaching impact it has also been interpreted as a spiritual practice, a set of values, a parenting technique, a method of social change, a mediation tool, an educational orientation, and a worldview. NVC has been applied in organizational and business settings,   in parenting,    in education,    comunicade in mediation,  in psychotherapy,  in healthcare,  in addressing eating issues,  in justice,    and as a basis for a rosehberg book,  among other contexts.
According to a biography of Rosenberg on the Center for Nonviolent Communication CNVC website, Nonviolent Communication training evolved from his search for a way to rapidly disseminate peacemaking skills.
CNVC says that NVC emerged from work he was doing with civil rights activists in the early s, and that during this period he also mediated between rioting students and college xomunicare, and worked to peacefully desegregate public schools in long-segregated regions.
Marshall-Rosenberg – Comunicarea nonviolenta.pdf
A master’s thesis by Marion Little says that the roots of the NVC model developed in the late s, when Rosenberg was working on racial integration in schools and organizations in the Southern United States.
The model had evolved to its present form observations, feelings, needs and requests by The dialog between Rosenberg and Nonviooenta colleagues and trainers continued to influence the model, nonviplenta by the late s put more emphasis on self-empathy as a key to the model’s effectiveness.
Another shift in emphasis, sincehas been the reference to the marshalp as a process. The focus is thus less on the cojunicare themselves and more on the practitioner’s intentions in speaking “Is the intent to get others to do what one wants, or to foster more meaningful relationships and mutual tosenberg Also according to Little’s thesis, Rosenberg’s work with Carl Rogers on research to investigate the necessary nonviolentz sufficient conditions of a therapeutic relationship was central to the development of NVC.
Little says Rosenberg was influenced by Erich FrommGeorge Albeeand George Miller to adopt a community focus in his work, moving away from clinical psychological practice.
The central ideas influencing this shift by Rosenberg were that: According to Little, Rosenberg’s early work with children with learning disabilities shows his interest in psycholinguistics and the power of language, as well as his emphasis on collaboration.
In its initial development, the NVC model re-structured the pupil-teacher relationship to give students greater responsibility for, and decision-making related to, their own learning. The model has evolved over the years to incorporate institutional power relationships i.
The ultimate aim is to develop societal relationships based on a restorative” partnership ” paradigm and mutual respectrather than a retributivefear-based, ” domination ” paradigm. Little also says Rosenberg identified Mahatma Gandhi as an inspiration for the NVC model, and that Rosenberg’s goal was to develop a practical process for interaction rooted in the philosophy of Ahimsawhich Little translates as “the overflowing love that arises when all ill-will, anger, and hate have subsided from the heart.
In order to show the differences between communication styles, Rosenberg started to use two animals. Violent communication was represented by the carnivorous Jackal as a honviolenta of aggression and especially dominance. The herbivorous Giraffe on the other hand, represented his NVC strategy.
The Giraffe was chosen as symbol for NVC nonvilenta its long neck is supposed to show the clear-sighted speaker, being aware of his fellow speakers’ reactions; and because the Giraffe has a large heart, representing the compassionate side of NVC. In his courses he roxenberg to comunicarw these animals in order to make the differences in communication clearer to the audience.
Nonviolent Communication holds that most conflicts between individuals or groups arise from miscommunication about their human needsdue to coercive or manipulative language that aims to induce fearguiltshameetc.
These “violent” modes of communication, when used during a conflict, divert the attention of the participants away from clarifying their needs, their feelings, their perceptions, and their requests, thus perpetuating the conflict. Marshall Rosenberg, the founder of Nonviolent Communication, published numerous training materials to help in efforts to bring nonvjolenta radical social change.
He suggested social change activists could focus on gaining access to those in power in xomunicare to “ask, ask, ask” for changes that will make life better for all including the powerful. The trainers also say that practicing NVC involves having comunucare following intentions: Rosenberg says that certain ways of communicating tend to alienate people from the experience of compassion: As ofNVC was said to lack significant “longitudinal analytical research,” and few studies had evaluated the effectiveness of Nonviolejta training programs.
Since that time, the number of publications reporting research on NVC has more than doubled. Carme Juncadella produced a systematic review of research as of related to the impact of NVC on the development of empathy. Eleven of these suggested an increase in empathy subsequent to the application of NVC five of these with evidence of statistical significance and two did not.
Juncadella notes several shortcomings of her review. None of the studies she included were randomized and only three used validated instruments. As a result she used a narrative synthesis review format, which, “lacks precision,” but allows the summarization of studies of different types, sizes, outcome measures and aims. She suggests the primary limitation of her review is that nonvio,enta number of relevant studies exist that could not be included due to lack of availability.
She suggests these might have significantly altered her results. Finally, she includes the following caveat: In spite of the efforts made towards ‘disciplined subjectivity’ As offifteen master’s theses and doctoral dissertations are known to have tested the model on sample sizes of or smaller and generally have found the model to be effective. Allan Rohlfs, who first met Rosenberg in and was a founder of the Center for Nonviolent Communication, in explained a paucity of academic literature as follows:.
Virtually all conflict resolution programs have an academic setting as their foundation and therefore have empirical studies by graduate students assessing their efficacy.
NVC is remarkable for its roots. Empirical data is now coming slowly as independent researchers find their own funding to conduct and publish empirical studies with peer review. Richard Bowers’ master’s thesis updated to book form by Bowers and Moffett asserts that NVC has been absent from academic programs due to a lack of research into the theoretical basis comunicard the model and lack of research on the reliability of positive results.
Bowers’ thesis meets the first objection through an analysis of existing theories which provide solid support for each element of the NVC mediation model. Without this theoretical understanding, it would not be clear what aspects of the NVC model make it work or even if it can be effectively applied by anyone other than Marshall Rosenberg.
This theoretical analysis can provide a foundation for further marshalk research on the effectiveness and reliability of the model. Connor and Wentworth  examined the impact fomunicare 6-months of NVC training and coaching on 23 executives in a Fortune corporation.
A variety of benefits were reported, including “conversations and meetings were notably more efficient, with issues being resolved in percent less time. NVC has reportedly been an element of a bundle of interventions that produced dramatic changes in forensic psychiatric nursing settings in which a high level of violence is the norm.
NVC was adopted, in combination with other interventions, in an effort to reduce violence. The interventions were said to reduce key violence indicators by 90 percent over a three-year period in a medium security unit,  rpsenberg by around 50 percent in a single year in a maximum security unit. A study examined the effects of combined NVC and mindfulness training on male inmates of the Monroe Correctional Complex in Monroe, Washington.
The training was found to increase equanimity, decrease anger, and lead to abilities to take responsibility for one’s feelings, express empathy, and to make requests without imposing demands.
NVC has also been reported as effective in reducing domestic violence. Male participants who graduated from an NVC-based batterer intervention program in California had zero percent recidivism within 5 years, according to the relevant District Attorneys’ offices. The news report contrasted this with a recidivism rate of 40 percent within 5 years as reported by the Domestic Abuse Intervention Project for graduates of their batterer intervention program based on the Duluth Modelsaid to previously offer the lowest nonviolena domestic violence recidivism rate.
Bowers and Moffett  provide a thoughtful study of the important role of empathy and human needs in mediation through the development of a theoretical model to explain the effectiveness of NVC mediation. The authors present theories of human needs and the basis for a common core of needs. They discuss theories that explain the importance of understanding human needs in the context of conflict resolution. They clearly distinguish core human needs from interests strategies and orsenberg focusing on needs is a paradigm shift in the field of conflict resolution.
Further, Bowers and Moffett present theories of empathy from the pioneering work of Carl Rogers, Heinz Kohutand others. Empathy is distinguished from sympathy and active listening, pointing out how the word empathy is often confused in the literature by using it interchangeably with these other two terms.
They also examine stage theories of the development of empathy as well as constructive-developmental theories related to empathy. Some recent research appears to validate the existence of universal human needs. I think it nomviolenta important that people see that spirituality is at the base of Nonviolent Communication, and that they learn the mechanics of the process with that in mind. It’s really a spiritual practice that I am trying to show as a way of life.
Even though we don’t mention this, people get seduced by the practice. Even if they practice this as a mechanical technique, they start to experience things between themselves and other mrashall they weren’t able to experience before.
So eventually they come to the spirituality of the process. They begin to see that it’s more than a communication process and realize it’s really an attempt comuniacre manifest a certain spirituality. Rosenberg further states that he developed NVC as a way to “get conscious of” what he calls the “Beloved Divine Energy”. Marion Little examines theoretical frameworks related to NVC. The influential interest-based rosenbeerg for conflict resolution, negotiation, and mediation orsenberg by FisherUryand Patton at the Harvard Negotiation Project and at the Program on Negotiation in the s appears to have some conceptual overlap with NVC, although neither model references the other.
Suzanne Jones sees a substantive difference between active listening as originated by Gordon and empathic listening as recommended by Rosenberg, insofar as active listening involves a specific step of reflecting what a speaker said to let them know you are listening, whereas empathic listening involves an ongoing process of listening with both heart and mind and nonviloenta fully present marshlal the other’s experience, with an aim of comprehending and empathizing with the needs of the other, the meaning of the experience for that person.
Chapman Flack sees an overlap between what Rosenberg advocates and critical thinkingespecially Bertrand Russell ‘s formulation uniting kindness and clear thinking. As ofsome researchers noted that NVC lacked an evidence base beyond the copious anecdotal claims of effectiveness and similarly lacked discussion in the literature of the theoretical basis of the model.
Several researchers have attempted a thorough evaluation marshwll criticisms and weaknesses of NVC marsjall assessed significant challenges in its application. The difficulty of using NVC as well as the dangers of misuse are common concerns.
In addition, Bitschnau  and Flack  find a paradoxical potential for violence in the use of NVC, occasioned by its unskilled use. Bitschnau further suggests that the use of NVC is unlikely to allow everyone to express their feelings and have their needs met in real life as this would require inordinate time, patience and discipline.
Nonviolent Communication – Wikipedia
Those who are skilled in nohviolenta use of NVC may become prejudiced against those who are not and prefer to converse only among themselves. Oboth suggests that people might hide their feelings in the process of empathy, subverting the nonviolence of communication.
The massive investment of time and effort in learning to use NVC has been noted by a number of researchers. Chapman Flack, in reviewing a training video by Rosenberg, finds the presentation of key ideas “spell-binding” and the anecdotes “humbling and inspiring”, notes the “beauty of his work”, and his “adroitly doing fine attentive thinking” when interacting with his audience.
Yet Flack wonders what to make of aspects of Rosenberg’s presentation, such as his rosdnberg “dim view of the place for thinking” and his building on Walter Wink ‘s account of the origins of our way nonvioelnta thinking.
To Flack, some elements of what Rosenberg says seem like pat answers at odds with the challenging and complex picture of human nature history, literature and art offer. Flack notes a distinction between the “strong sense” of Nonviolent Communication as a virtue that is possible with care and attention, and the “weak sense,” a mimicry of this born of ego comunicqre haste.
The strong sense offers a language to examine one’s nonviilenta and actions, support understanding, bring one’s best to the community, and honor one’s emotions.
In the weak sense, one may take the language as rules and use these to score debating points, label others for political gain, or insist that others express themselves in this way.